“He who does not learn from history must repeat it”
“For 200 years, Palestine was dominated by the Crusaders, who, following an appeal by Pope Urban II, came from Europe to recover the Holy Land from the infidels. In July 1099, after a five-week siege, the knights of the First Crusade and their rabble army captured Jerusalem, massacring most of the city’s non-Christian inhabitants. Barricaded in their synagogues, the Jews defended their quarter, only to be burnt to death or sold into slavery. During the next few decades, the Crusaders extended their power over the rest of the country, through treaties and agreements, but mostly by bloody military victories. The Latin Kingdom of the Crusaders was that of a conquering minority confined mainly to fortified cities and castles.
When the Crusaders opened up transportation routes from Europe, pilgrimages to the Holy Land became popular and, at the same time, increasing numbers of Jews sought to return to their homeland. Documents of the period indicate that 300 rabbis from France and England arrived in a group, with some settling in Acro (Akko), others in Jerusalem.
After the overthrow of the Crusaders by a Muslim army under Saladin (1187), the Jews were again accorded a certain measure of freedom, including the right to live in Jerusalem. Although the Crusaders regained a foothold in the country after Saladin’s death (1193), their presence was limited to a network of fortified castles. Crusader authority in the Land ended after a final defeat (1291) by the Mamluks, a Muslim military class which had come to power in Egypt.”
The Eight Crusades
The First Crusade: 1096-1099
Alexus Comnenus asked for mercenaries to defend Constantinople. Instead he received perhaps 12,000 commoners intent on liberating Jerusalem. The European nobility marched on Jerusalem.
The Second Crusade: 1147-1149
Originally preached by Bernard of Clairvaux. Only a few Greek islands were taken.
The Third Crusade: 1189-1192
Led by Frederick Barbarosa, Richard I of England and Philip II of France. Results in a truce which gives Christians access to Jerusalem and the Holy Places.
The Fourth Crusade: 1202-1204
Instead of marching on Jerusalem, this crusade was diverted to Constantinople. The city remained in Latin hands until 1261.
The Albigensian Crusade: 1208
Preached by Pope Innocent III against the Albigensian heretics in southern France.
The Children’s Crusade: 1212
Preached by Stephan of Vendome and by Nicholas of Koln. One group reached Marseilles and was sold into slavery; the other turned back.
The Fifth Crusade: 1218-1221
An attack on Egypt.
The Sixth Crusade: 1228-1229
Led by Frederick II, Holy Roman Emperor. He negotiated a treaty which led to Christian control of several important holy sites, including Jerusalem. Jerusalem was retaken by Muslim mercenaries in 1244.
The Seventh Crusade: 1248-1254
Led by King Louis IX of France (Saint Louis). He captured the Egyptian city of Damietta, but was himself taken captive in the battle for Cairo. He was eventually ransomed.
The Eighth Crusade: 1270
The crusades, a facinating chapter in the history of the land of Israel.
The crucades take over Jerusalem and live in the temple mount.
The voyage towards Jerusalem.
Evidence ; a diary of a nun, the places remain , the knights who came from Europe on a quest sent by the pope and the kings.
According to Christianity killing is wrong but if you kill for Jesus you become better Christians.
In the mount of olives, the monks kept souvenirs of the past of the crusades in Jerusalem.
The crusades who conquered jerusalem, their goal was taking over the church of the grave, but besides that they had massacred the Moslem and Jewish residents of the city, they gathered the jews and burned them in their synagogue , the acts of cruelty were described in documents and there is still today archeological evidence of the slaughter of the jews who did not have a chance. The knights washed off the blood and continued towards their goal to take over their church. Still today there are pilgrims that wish to come all that way to touch the earth where Jesus walked.
Facinating history in Jerusalem.
Zalach a Din was a Kurdish worrier who united the Moslems in order to liberate Jerusalem from the crusaders and he fights the Christians for dominance, there are battles, the king of Jerusalem , Baldwin was a 13 year old boy..and the crusaders won the battle, they saw that as a sign that the holy spirit is with them, but the Kurdish leader does not give up. He continues to fight against the various crusade centers . The crucaders and the Moslems battle for the holy places.
There were many killed in battles, and they built an underground structure to fill the dead, the legends tell that it is a holy place , the bodies of the dead were thrown into those pits.
Baldwin who tried to live in peace with the Moslems dies, and the crusades continues to battle the Moslems for control over the holy land.
“karnei chitin “-the crusaders lose the battle, salach a Din , the Kurdish leader of the Moslems wins the battle beheading the knights.
Salach a Din, kurdish leader, enters Jerusalem takes off the cross and places the half moon.
Salach a Din becomes a role model to other Moslem leaders, even sadam Hussein saw himself as the modern Salach a Din.
The crusades continue, the kings of France and England themselves lead the battle after the loss, and Richard the lion hearted takes over the city after a battle!
Richard the lion hearted leads the battle against Salach a Din, and wins.
Acre becomes the capitol of the crusades. There is an entire city buried beneath the modern city, they created an entire city beneath the ground, water resources were dug, there are many artefacts from this time found by archeologists, how Europe moves from the middle ages to the Renaissance.
The crusaders began merchants and made an industrial revolution in the middle ages, sugar and flour and other products were dealt with.
In the 12th century sugar became a very important product, they exported sugar to Europe through Acre.
The crusaders become rich as a result of the exchange of goods.
They founded the first bank in the world , allowing pilgrims to borrow money.
The struggle over control become violent. There are records by a monk about violence, murder by the local population towards each other.
The Moslems also undergochange, the Malmukim, the Turks attack the crusades and they take over their castles and they gain control.
The stones and the arrow heads are evidence of the fierce battles that took place there. the crusades fall in 1265.
The Mamlukim burn the fortress, there is still evidence today, hundreds of years later.
In 1290 the Sultan calls for JIHAD throughout the Moslem world, to overthrow the crusades in Acre, and once the walls fall, they take over .
The crusades escape through the sea and abandon Acre, after a 40 day battle, that was the last battle in the land of Israel.
The crusades left the land of Israel and returned to Europe. their churches had been destroyed.
The battles that had occurred a thousand of years ago still leave their mark.
There is a Moslem Legend that salach a Din had a dream to do a Jihad against the infidels in Europe and the organization ISIS relives that dream today ..and what happened then continues to influence the world today.
If this land would have been occupied by radical Moslems, there would be no research, no archeology , no historical teaching, and therefore the land is now in good hands of those who research the past and study its fascinating lessons.